Smart Cities and the Global Digital Infrastructure Revolution

Writing for GRESB Insights Series, John Kavanagh, Head of Policy and Public Affairs & Max Worthington, Policy / Research Executive look at the move to smart cities and the digital infrastructure revolution. 

As the world begins to emerge from the global COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown measures are eased in the months ahead, the attention of decision-makers will begin to shift towards the need to stimulate the recovery and to get economies up and running again. The crisis has already taught us many things, but perhaps one of the most poignant lessons is on the importance of digital infrastructure in sustaining economic activity.

Millions around the world have been able to continue to work virtually, coordinating tasks using applications and software which are ultimately reliant on a robust physical digital infrastructure network. Microsoft Corporation recently announced that its Teams software had set a new daily record of 2.7 billion meeting minutes and the number of video calls on the platform increased 1000 percent in March 2020.¹

The crisis has also shone a light on those countries struggling to keep pace with the digital infrastructure revolution. According to the US Federal Communications Commission, more than 21 million US citizens remain without any broadband connection at all; this lack of connectivity exacerbates the challenges faced by ordinary US citizens when relying on remote communications in an era of strict social distancing.

The Opportunity

The opportunity to harness the shift to digitalization is colossal. The McKinsey Global Institute (MGI) estimates that an additional USD 13 trillion could be added to global GDP by 2030 through digitalization, automation, and Artificial Intelligence (AI) as these technologies create new ventures and productivity gains, which in turn lead to reinvestment. It is important to remember though, that technology-enabled infrastructure relies on a partnership between public decision-makers and private investors that have the capital to deploy and unrivaled expertise in project management and delivery to make this a success.

According to the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, an estimated 68% of the world’s population will live in urban areas by 2050.² By 2030 alone, the world is projected to have 43 megacities with more than 10 million inhabitants, making the transition to technology-enabled management of urban growth an increasingly pertinent policy issue for all levels of government administration around the world.

Smart Cities can form a part of the policy response to the challenges resulting of increasing urban population densities and the knock-on effect on housing, transportation, waste, water and energy network infrastructure. Most definitions of a smart city include the use of digital technology to improve efficiency of services, the integration of information and communication technologies and sensor-enabled Internet of Things (IoT) solutions to manage a city’s assets and processes.³  According to the European Commission, the Smart Cities project market is expected to exceed USD 2 trillion by 2025 – with Artificial Intelligence forming a key cornerstone of the growth.⁴

Smart Cities can also change the nature and economic models used in infrastructure, relying on technology to improve the quality of life for citizens. Connected mobile applications put an unprecedented volume of real-time data into the hands of users to optimize existing urban systems and allow users to make informed decisions. ⁵

Digital intelligence can reduce congestion on roads, minimize waste and energy usage, provide disaster early-warning systems, optimize emergency service responses and provide infectious disease surveillance – among many other benefits.⁶ In their research on the digital solutions for Smart City living in 2018, MGI found that the public sector would be the natural owner of 70 percent of the technology applications they surveyed; but 60 percent of the initial investment required to implement the full range of applications would come from private actors. ⁷

The Smart City Infrastructure Fund

To provide a tangible example of successful public-private cooperation on Smart Cities, we can look towards the Smart City Infrastructure Fund. The fund was established by APG, a Netherlands based pension investor and GIIA member, and Whitehelm Capital in November 2018 to provide long-term funding for Smart City infrastructure projects enabling cities and communities to become more inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable and helping governments to provide more efficient urban services to communities whilst also meeting decarbonization targets. ⁸

They agreed to partner with SiFi Networks America Ltd (“SiFi”) to invest over USD 75 million in the deployment of Smart-City ready digital infrastructure in the City of Fullerton, California. This partnership will enable the rollout of the largest privately funded open-access fibre network in North America. Ron Boots, the Head of Infrastructure at APG, notes that “the ultimate objective of the fund is to improve quality of life and meet the needs of cities, allowing city officials to interact directly with the community, to improve physical infrastructure and how essential services are delivered”.

The roll-out of FiberCity™, SiFi Network’s next generation of telecommunications, in Fullerton will provide a significant upgrade to internet speeds and could equip more than 55,000 homes and 5,000 businesses with high-speed fibre connectivity. ⁹ It will also facilitate the proliferation of new Smart City solutions in key urban services, usually the domain of public actions, such as traffic control, street lighting and emergency services. Additionally, the fibre network will provide a platform for the future expansion of 5G mobile and Internet of Things networks into the area.

The Future

Smart Cities help to provide us with a case study in success for how the public and private sectors can work together to realize the benefits of the global digital infrastructure revolution. However, despite their successes, they only represent the tip of the iceberg for what could be achieved with closer working and understanding between the public and private sectors in this important policy area. As governments deal with the immediate aftereffects of the COVID-19 pandemic and seek to get economies up and running again, they would be well placed to proactively engage with their private sector partners to leverage the transformative potential of private capital and realize the opportunity of the global digital infrastructure revolution in the years ahead.

¹ NASDAQ website (April 2020) Microsoft’s (MSFT) Teams Sees Growth Amid Coronavirus Scare
² UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (2018), 2018 Revision of World Urbanization Prospects
³  OECD, (2019) Enhancing the contribution of digitalisation to the Smart Cities of the future
⁴ European Commission (2018), Smart Cities
⁵ McKinsey Global Institute (2018), Smart Cities: Digital Solutions for a More Liveable Future
⁶ OECD (2018), Enhancing the Contribution of Digitalisation to the Smart Cities of the Future
⁷ McKinsey Global Institute (2018), Smart Cities: Digital Solutions for a More Liveable Future
⁸ White Helm Capital (2019), First Investment of Smart City Infrastructure Fund
⁹ APG (2019) APG and Whitehelm invest in California fibre network

New Blog: Fight for net zero goes on, despite crisis

Writing for Utility Week CEO Lawrence Slade says even in these difficult times, utilities must continue to focus on the need to reduce emissions and the shift to a zero-carbon economy.

Our lives have changed completely in the space of just a few short weeks. Perhaps, in terms of how we work and manage our lives, things will never quite go back to normal, with more flexible working across thousands of roles and companies becoming the norm.

Uniquely, everyone in the country is affected. This will bring many challenges, not least to the National Health Service, whose staff deserve our heartfelt thanks for their amazing efforts, but also to those working to ensure the essential infrastructure that we all rely on, including electricity, gas, water, broadband and tele­coms networks, remains operational over this difficult period. The robustness of our utilities is something that, as a sector, we should be proud of.

But while it is understandably difficult to look beyond the next few weeks, we must. The underlying issues we faced before the Covid-19 crisis remain. For many reasons it is a blessing that we are emerging from winter, with the warmer weather able to bring respite on a number of fronts.

While this is welcome, many of our properties are still poorly insulated and thousands of families are living without modern levels of comfort. Furthermore, reduced incomes and sudden bill shocks as a result of economic volatility will not help, making it certain that many families will need further short-term help to manage debt in the coming months, as well as long-term solutions such as the provision of energy efficiency. Linked to this, of course, is the need to reduce our emissions and the longer-term move to a zero-carbon economy. The urgency to act is still there.

To meet the challenge of climate change, we know that many billions of pounds need to be invested in our infrastructure over the coming decades. Unfortunately, time is not on our side.

The chancellor’s moves to support the economy will provide vital respite for many businesses and families and will need to continue for some time. But, as has happened at other times of national emergency, it is important that we also look ahead to the future. We need to look at how we will get our economy moving again and how we invest in our communities to ensure value is created for all stakeholders.

Before the crisis hit, 2020 was, as the National Infrastructure Commission said, shaping up to be a year of decisive action. Reports suggested that the budget would give long-awaited clarity on infrastructure investment, building on the announcements in November that laid out how much money was to be invested in our infrastructure and how that could be split between the private and public sectors.

This was to be seen as a new start, with investment expected to be made in infrastructure projects across the UK – part of the process of “levelling up” our society away from an historical focus on investment in the South.

Moves to allow onshore wind and solar projects to bid in the contracts for difference auctions were welcome, likewise the move to speed up the roll-out of fibre-optic cabling for better broadband connectivity, but we need to keep the momentum going.

Addressing climate change, making the investment in new – and upgrading existing – infrastructure and delivering a clean, carbon-free economy is something that future generations will thank us for. When we surface from the current crisis, we have the opportunity to reset society’s relationship with the built environment and pull the country together.

Combining government funding with that available from the private sector will allow us to achieve much more, much faster. Utility projects do not happen overnight; rather they take years of planning and building before delivery. As a country, whether it is across our energy, water or telecoms networks, we need to plan and to act to ensure that the right long-term strategy is in place.

A strategic dialogue between government, devolved administrations and the private sector will ensure that private capital is deployed where it is most needed to aid economic recovery. To be absolutely clear, the government’s immediate priority must be to respond to the health crisis by ensuring our hospitals and hard-working staff are provided the necessary equipment needed to save lives.

But at the same time, working together we can begin the important job of delivering the infrastructure needed to propel the country’s economy.

Private investors stand ready with capital to deploy to support these public sector-led initiatives, as well as offering unrivalled expertise in project management and delivery.

 

Infrastructure investors and advisors gather for GIIA Annual Seminar

The 3rd GIIA Annual Seminar, sponsored by Ashurst, KPMG and Marsh, was held on Tuesday 18th February in London and focused on the emerging opportunities and risks for infrastructure investors in the UK and Europe under the theme ‘The Fog is Lifting.’

Simon Jack, the BBC News Business Editor, launched the afternoon seminar with his keynote address which touched on broad themes including Brexit, net zero carbon targets and the need for big business to improve its image. Highlighting the lingering uncertainty over Brexit, he predicted that fog would not truly lift until the end of the UK transition period at the end of 2020 – and a potential ‘Australian style’ no-deal Brexit.

Following on, James Stewart, Global Head of Infrastructure Practice at KPMG, chaired a panel on the topic of ‘Opportunities for infrastructure investors post-Brexit.’ Joining him on the panel were Ed Clarke, Co-Founder & Managing Director, Infracapital, Steven Pugh, Principal, Hermes, and Simon Jack, Editor, BBC Business. In a wide ranging discussion, the panel considered how underlying public discontent with aspects of the infrastructure sector, the ongoing uncertainty over Brexit and more aggressive regulation in the utility sector had combined to create a less attractive investment environment in the UK in recent years. The panel agreed that whilst the threat of nationalisation had receded in the short term, there remained an important task for the sector to earn its social licence to operate.

Blair Chalmers, Director at Marsh & McLennan Advantage Insights, then took to the stage to launch a new interactive online tool for infrastructure investors, developed in association with GIIA, which outlines the complex landscape of interconnected global risks facing the infrastructure sector. He also outlined how shareholder expectations are changing in response to the climate challenge and how investors need to develop profit-sustainability synergies.

Kay Swinburne, former MEP and current Vice Chair of Financial Services at KPMG, moderated an all-female panel titled ‘Unpacking the EU Green Deal: What does it mean for infrastructure investors.’ The panel, comprised of Anna-Marie Slot, Global Sustainability Partner, Ashurst; Anna Davreux, Senior Vice President of Financial Services at FleishmanHillard, and Elena Giannakopoulou, Vice President of Strategy & Partnerships at John Laing Group, discussed the politics driving the EU Green Deal and how those policies could be influenced by investors through increased engagement and consultations.

The seminar concluded with a fireside chat between Jonathan Oxley, the CEO of UK Regulators Network, and Michael Burns, a Partner at Ashurst. In an intriguing discussion, Oxley discussed the importance of independent regulation, and the need to the rebuild trust between the regulators, investors and the customer. The discussion focussed on the need to make the UK an attractive place to invest but also the need for asset owners to meet society’s requirements on responsible stewardship.

GIIA and Marsh & McLennan launch Global Risks for Infrastructure Map

Against a backdrop of continued macroeconomic uncertainty, societal instability, weaponized cyber capabilities, acute environmental threats and geopolitical frictions, infrastructure investors will need to be adaptable to ensure the longevity and security of their assets.

View the Global Risks for Infrastructure Map 

The 2020 Global Risks for Infrastructure Map, produced by Marsh & McLennan Advantage Insights in partnership with GIIA, provides some guidance for investors looking to navigate the choppy waters ahead. The Map provides investors with a view of the key risks and includes a curation of case studies evaluating ways in which these risks have affected infrastructure assets in recent years.

In the coming months, Marsh & McLennan Advantage Insights and GIIA will also release in-depth reports on two crucial global risks facing the infrastructure sector: climate change, and the emergence of transformative technologies.

The first, Global Risks for Infrastructure: The Climate Challenge takes a closer look at the impact of climate-induced physical and transition risks on the infrastructure sector, and will outline viable mitigation solutions and strategic opportunities for investors.

While the second report, Global Risks for Infrastructure: Transformative Technologies, provides a focused overview of the ways in which transformative technologies are changing the infrastructure sector, and provide frameworks that investors can consider for future-proofing their assets.

Stay up to date with the latest news from GIIA by following us on Twitter and LinkedIn.

Government engagement in UK and Brussels

With the recently re-elected Boris Johnson Government in the UK and the new Commission in Europe both looking to address the delivery of infrastructure early in their respective terms, it has been a busy start to 2020 for GIIA.

Ahead of the March Budget, GIIA has written to Chancellor Sajid Javid welcoming his promise of an ‘infrastructure revolution’ as well as the Government’s acknowledgement of the vital role private capital will play in delivering the country’s £600bn infrastructure pipeline to 2050.  We have called for enhanced dialogue with the private sector over the funding models envisaged to achieve the UK’s infrastructure aspirations, not least in relation to the Net Zero commitments which promises to have profound impacts on the wider economy.

January also saw GIIA in Brussels to meet with senior representatives from the European Commission including from President von der Leyen’s Cabinet, where coordination of the EU Green Deal will take place, and Commissioner Gentolini’s Cabinet which has responsibility for the InvestEU programme and the Sustainable Europe Investment Plan. GIIA intends to play a prominent role in facilitating discussions on the delivery mechanisms for the recently announced  EU Green Deal and in particular the opportunities available to private investors. We look forward to discussing these and other opportunities with member companies at our annual seminar in February.

As always, members who wish to share their views and participate in any of GIIA’s workstreams are encouraged to get in touch.

GIIA Members’ Assets Grow to $660bn

Analysis compiled by Associate Member EY, working with GIIA, reveals significant growth in members’ assets under management – rising from $500bn in 17/18 to more than $660bn – with 1,300 assets spanning 49 countries across 6 continents.

Globally, GIIA members’ assets provide the essential infrastructure needed by hundreds of millions of people every day – including utilities, energy, transport, telecommunications and social infrastructure.

Of particular note, members made significant investments in renewable energies increasing capacity to 48,000MW of wind power (up 16,300MW), 33,000MW of solar (up 20,300MW) and 14,800MW of hydro and biomass (up 7,300MW) since 17/18.

Based on responses by members, the findings show that for every £100bn of AUM, members will invest an additional £96.7bn in capex over the next five years – an increase of almost 20% since 17/18.

Click here to view the GIIA 2018/19 Global Asset Database

GIIA responds to NIC’s call for evidence

GIIA, has responded on behalf of members to the National Infrastructure Commission’s Call for Evidence for their review, called The Future of Regulation Study.

The submission was a result of extensive consultations with GIIA members who collectively own and operate more than $660bn of infrastructure assets globally, with the largest single country allocation being the UK.

Director of Policy and Research Piers Thompson said:

“Economic regulation of water, energy and telecoms in the UK has facilitated the investment that has delivered world class infrastructure with improved outcomes for consumers, at low cost.”

“These sectors can continue to attract investment and deliver positive outcomes for consumers and the environment if objectivity, transparency and predictability continue to be core to the regulatory model.”

Read GIIA’s full submission here

GIIA is grateful to Allen & Overy for their assistance with this important submission on behalf of the sector.